Fr. James' Lectionary

The Lectionary is both a reading program for completing all of Holy Scripture on a one year schedule, and a daily comment on a portion of the day's reading wedded to a poem to give an added perspective on the theme.

Location: Amherst, Virginia, United States

Saturday, September 23, 2006

Four Winds of Heaven: Bible Comment on Zechariah 6 with an Arab Proverb

Daily Readings
Sirach 13:1-24, II Kings 6:24-7:20, Zechariah 6, Jeremiah 27

Daily Text: Zechariah 6

Four Winds of Heaven
The final vision in this prophet’s writing is found in Zechariah 6, that of the four horses—the four winds of heaven. Only the Black horses and their chariot go northwards and set God’s spirit at rest. Babylon, Persia the great powers evidently are meant. As a result there is the migration South of the Judahites returning from Exile. In the second part of the chapter some of them and their significance is sketched out.

Three men bring gifts of silver and gold in verse 10. From these Zechariah is instructed to make crowns, presumably, two of them. One of them is for Joshua, the high priest. Immediately, following verse 11 is another oracular envelope in which the prophet declares that a man whose name is Branch (Zerubbabel) is present. The other crown is obviously for him. He shall build the Temple and bear royal honor. There shall be a priest beside him (Joshua) and between the two there will be a peaceful understanding. There are a number of ways to interpret this passage, but none seems to be as consistent with the language and with the previous visions as is the one above.

With this vision Zechariah completes his contribution via visions to the ordering of the rebuilt city of Judah, the holy city and capital, Jerusalem.

Arabian Proverb
Indeterminate Date

The fleetest of horses is the chestnut,
the most enduring the bay,
the most spirited the black,
and the most blessed the white.

from Ensminger, Horses and Horsemanship, 1977, 100.]

Collect for the Day
Eternal God, in whose perfect kingdom no sword is drawn but he sword of righteousness, and no strength known but the strength of love. We pray thee so mightily to shed and spread abroad thy Spirit, that all peoples and ranks may be gathered under one banner, of the Prince of Peace; as children of one God and Father of all; to whom be dominion and glory now and for ever. Amen.

[286:198 Eric Milner-White, 1884-1964]

Friday, September 22, 2006

Weights and Measures: Bible Comment on Zechariah 5 with poem by Sophocles, The Higher Command

Daily Readings
Sirach 12, II Kings 6:1-23, Zechariah 5, Jeremiah 26

Daily Text: Zechariah 5

Weights and Measures
An ephah is a unit of measure, usually a little over 5 gallons. The ‘basket’ in the NRSV, to be a container of that size—not large enough for a human being. But this is a vision. On the top of the vessel is a lead weight, probably safely considered a weight as in weight and measure. So this vision concerns weights and measures and we may assume that the wickedness entails theft by cheating, something disordering to the social order. Following Petersen in all of this [528:245 ff.] we may note that as in the fifth vision, since the administrative order is new, that is shared governance by high priest and Persian Governor, Zechariah’s vision is stating that the old covenantal order set by the ten commandments is still in place. Given that priest and ruler cannot make the new order work like the old, then YHWH will enforce the social order Himself. Here this wickedness is carried away by two women with storks wings, carried away to the plain of Shinar where the tower of Babel was constructed in then present Babylon. By removing this evil to Babylon, where presumably it was at home, Israel was purified. Zechariah’s prophesy was then to assert that the old covenant of just weights and measures was still in force and that it behove the citizenry to observe the commandments. The practical message from these poetic, even fairy-tale like visions, thus becomes apparent to the reader whether in Zechariah’s day or our own. The entire social, governmental and cultural order may change, but the LORD’s expectations for the behaviour of His people is to be based on the Mosaic law. Without it there can be no faithfulness in relationship to Him or to others.

The Higher Command
from Antigone
495-406 B.C.

Antigone, a young girl, standing alone before Creon, tyrant of Thebes, defies the cruel decree of the tyrant. Basing her defense on “the unwritten laws of God that know not change” she anticipates the fundamental principle of the American Declaration of Independence (1776), and the International war crimes trial at Nuremberg (1946).

Creon. [To Antigone] Knew’st thou the edicts which forbade these things?
Antigone. I knew them. Could I fail? Full clear were they.
Creon. And thou did’st dare to disobey these laws?
Antigone. Yes, for it was not Zeus who gave them forth,
Nor Justice, dwelling with kthe Gods below,
Who traced these laws for all the sons of men;
Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough,
That thou, a mortal man, should’st over-pass
The unwritten laws of God that know not change.
They are not of to-day nor yesterday,
But live for ever, nor can man assign
When first they sprang to being.

Collect for the Day
Lord Jesus Christ
alive and at large in the world,
help me to follow and find you there today,
in the places where I work,
meet people,
spend money
and make plans.
Take me as a disciple of your kingdom,
to see through your eyes,
and hear the questions you are asking,
to welcome all men with your trust and truth
and to change the things that contradict God’s love,
by the power of the cross
and the freedom of your Spirit. Amen.

[286:210 John Taylor, Bishop of Winchester]

Thursday, September 21, 2006

The Eyes of God: Bible Comment on Zechariah 4 with poem by Thomas Moore, The Glory of God in Creation

Feast of St. Matthew

Daily Readings
Proverbs 3:1-6, II Kings 5, Zechariah 4, Matthew 9:9-13

Daily Text: Zechariah 4

The Eyes of God
The Fifth Vision in Zechariah 4 accomplishes two purposes: the Lord’s involvement with the temple rebuilding, and a clarification as to who does what. The LORD’s presence is characterized by the eyes of the LORD represented in the seven ‘eyes’ of each lamp. Evidently, each lamp had seven apertures for wicks. When lit they could be conceived as being lighted eyes. These ‘eyes’ of the LORD were looking out on the whole earth, but from the temple in Jerusalem. Enveloped in the middle of the vision, verses 6b-10a, is an oracular defense of Zerubbabel’s role in laying the foundation and completing the temple. Presumably, the high priest Joshua has been challenging Zerubbabel’s right to this role and the LORD is setting him straight through Zechariah’s vision. One is able, thus far, to see the critical role played by Zechariah in this entire building process both of the temple and this reconstituted people fresh from exile. “What are you oh great mountain?” If this is a reference to Joshua, then the answer is plain. “Before Zerubbabel you (Joshua) shall become a plain…. Moreover, ….the hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. Then you (Joshua) will know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you” [528:24-4]. This oracular insertion is not meant to diminish Joshua. Within the vision, verse 14, Joshua and Zerubbabel are seen as co-equal and necessary to the LORD’s fulfilling his will, one the high priest and the other the Davidic governor. They are the sons of oil, the sons of blessing, the sons of plenty filling out the divine purpose and presence. That is, they fill the lamps metaphorically which become both the presence and the ‘eyes’ of God.

The Glory of God in Creation
Thomas Moore

Thou art, O God, the life and light
Of all this wondrous world we see;
Its glow by day, its smile by night,
Are but reflections caught from Thee.
Where’er we turn, Thy glories shine,
And all things fair and bright are Thine!

When day, with farewell beam, delays
Among the opening clouds of even,
And we can almost think we gaze
Through golden vistas into heaven—
Those hues that make the sun’s decline
So soft, so radiant, Lord! are Thine.

When night, with wings of starry gloom,
O’ershadows all the earth and skies,
Like some dark, beauteous bird, whose plume
Is sparkling with unnumber’d eyes—
That sacred gloom, those fires divine,
So grand, so countless, Lord! are Thine.

When youthful Spring around us breathes,
Thy Spirit warms her fragrant sigh;
And every flower the Summer wreathes
Is born beneath Thy kindling eye:
Where’er we turn, Thy glories shine,
And all things fair and bright are Thine!

Collect for the Day
Almighty God,
who through your Son
called Matthew to be your apostle and evangelist,
free us from all greed and selfish love,
that we may follow in the steps of Jesus Christ our Lord,
who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.

[476:423:St. Matthew]

Wednesday, September 20, 2006

Divine Jurisprudence: Bible Comment on Zechariah 3 with poem by Laurence Housman, The Help-Givers

Daily Readings
Sirach 11, II Kings 4, Zechariah 3, Jeremiah 24

Daily Text: Zechariah 3

Divine Jurisprudence
Zechariah 3 is a vision of a court proceeding involving a man named Joshua, high priest of the people of God. He stands before a judge, probably the LORD himself, though he is referred to at times as the Angel of the LORD. The prosecuting attorney is Satan and the defender for the accused an Angel of the LORD. When the Accuser begins the LORD rebukes him, for Joshua, says he, is ‘ a brand plucked from the fire .’ The judge then has Joshua stripped of his filthy clothes. It is likely that these filthy clothes represents not only his own sin, but the sins of the people. There is at the time no temple, and no liturgy for making sacrifice. This vision provides the people through Zechariah a way to make a beginning in the Second Temple. Joshua has been stripped of his guilt and clothed with clean, even royal garments, making him ready for the courts of the LORD and therefore, the temple as well. Undoubtedly, the people would have understood this immediately.
Joshua, and therefore the people of Judah, is also promised a Davidic or Messianic King—the Branch. Whether the removal of the ‘guilt of the land’ in one day is to be a Messianic event or the high priest’s renewed sacrifice for the people on the coming Day of Atonement is indeterminable. What is significant is that through his vision Zechariah sees a way forward for his people in reestablishing the Temple.

The Help-Givers
Laurence Housman

Pride held my will:
Too much was to disown,
Too many a need I still
Could not unsay:
High Help at hand,
I willed to stand alone,
Fearful for self, for self I would not pray.

Then came a day:
Judged and condemned, enduring without hope—
I learned how, near at hand, two prisoners lay
In separate cells, each waiting for the rope:
Fearful of that whose touch would put away
All griefs and fears.
And helpless I, to aid
Their hapless state—
Lighten, or lift from them that stroke of fate—
With heartfelt tears,
For those poor souls, I prayed,
That them from utter wreck
Some Help might save!

Then to my heart
There came a rending wave:
Across my neck
A sudden rope was flung;
Up went a light,
And I, of land, had sight,--
Where, dark against the sky, two murderers clung,
And in the baffling storm, hand over hand,
Hauled on the line
Which drew my feet to land!

Lord, in Thy Kingdom’s day, remember them—
Whate’er they did—who helped me, in my need,
To touch Thy raiment’s hem!

Collect for the Day
O eternal God, King of all creation, who hast brought me to this hour, forgive me the sins which I have committed this day in thought, word, and deed, and cleanse, O Lord, my humble soul form every stain of flesh and spirit.

Grant me, O Lord, to pass through the sleep of this night in peace, to rise from my lowly bed, to please thy holy name all the days of my life, and to vanquish the enemies both bodily and spiritual that contend against me.

Deliver me, O Lord, from the vain thoughts that stain me, and from evil desires. For thine is the kingdom and the power, and the glory, of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, now and for ever and unto the ages of ages.

[489:66:March 23 Macarius of Egypt, c. 300-90]

Tuesday, September 19, 2006

The Lord's Inheritance: Bible Comment on Zechariah 1:18-2:13 with poem by Christopher Smart, Jubilate Agno

Daily Readings
Sirach 9:17-10:31, II Kings 3, Zechariah 1:18-2:13, Jeremiah 23

Daily Text: Zechariah 1:18-2:13

The Lord’s Inheritance
The horns of the vision have much to do with might and power and may well be seen as phallic images of male virility. This author believes that the phallic nature of the horn fits most if not all of the biblical references to horns from even the most ancient passages. In Zechariah the horns are constructed of metal and it requires blacksmiths to alter their shape even to severing them from the headdress or whatever construction held them together, scattering them to the periphery of national and international power.

Beginning in verse 6 there is a continuation, or perhaps an addendum to the third vision. In some detail, the prophet is given to understand that the LORD will simultaneously punish the nations and then call them to become part of the people of God with Jerusalem as their center. The LORD will be in their midst, but far from Judah becoming less important, they will become more important. Israel was taken from Egypt and given the Promised Land as their inheritance. In parallel fashion Judah will be the LORD’s inheritance, his portion of the holy land, and he will elect Jerusalem once again as the place where his Name will dwell. By their repentance and their obedience, the people of Judah bequeath the LORD his inheritance. What a marvelous understanding of the nature of the God-human relationship.

Come then in silence before this One who rouses himself in Jerusalem from his holy dwelling, in the midst of his people.

from Jubilate Agno
Christopher Smart

For I prophesy that we shall have our horns again.
For in the day of David Man as yet had a glorious horn upon his forehead.
For this horn was a bright substance in colour and consistence as the nail of the hand.
For it was broad, thick and strong so as to serve for defence as well as ornament.
For it brightened to the Glory of God, which came upon the human face at morning
For it was largest and brightest in the best men.
For it was taken away all at once from all of them,
For this was done in the divine contempt of a general pusillanimity.
For this happened in a season after their return from the Babylonish captivity.
For their spirits were broke and their manhood impaired by foreign vices for exaction.
For I prophesy that the English will recover their horns the first.
For I prophesy that all the nations in the world will do the like in turn.
For I prophesy that all Englishmen will wear their beards again.
For a beard is a good step to a horn.
For when men get their horns again, the will delight to go uncovered.
For it is not good to wear any thing upon the head.
For a man should put no obstacle between his head and the blessing of Almighty God.
For a hat was an abomination of the heathen. Lord have mercy upon the Quakers.
For the ceiling of the house is an obstacle and therefore we pray on the house-top.
For the head will be liable to less disorders on the recovery of its horn.
For the horn on the forehead is a tower upon an arch.
For it is a strong munition against the adversary, who is sickness and death.
For it is instrumental in subjecting the woman.
For the insolence of the woman has increased ever since man has been crest-fallen.
For they have turned the horn into scoff and derision without ceasing.
For we are amerced of God, who has his horn.
For we are amerced of the blessed angels, who have their horns.
For when they get their horns again they will put them upon the altar.
For they give great occasion for mirth and music.
For our Blessed Saviour had not his horn upon the face of the earth.
For this was in meekness and condescension to the infirmities of human nature at that
For at his second coming his horn will be exalted in glory.
For his horn is the horn of Salvation.
For Christ Jesus has exalted my voice to his own glory.
For he has answered me in the air as with a horn from heaven to the ears of many people.
For the horn is of plenty.
For this has been the sense of all ages.
For Man and Earth suffer together.
For when Man was amerced of his horn, earth lost part of her fertility.
For the art of Agriculture is improving.
For this is evident in flowers.
For it is more especially manifest in double flowers.
For earth will get it up again by the blessing of God on the industry of man.
For the horn is of plenty because of milk and honey.
For I pray God be gracious to the Bees and Beeves this day.

Collect for the Day
Father in heaven! You speak to us in many ways. Even when you are silent, you still speak to us, in order to examine us, to try us, and so that the hour of our understanding may be more profound.
Oh, in the time of silence, when I remain alone and abandoned because I do not hear your voice, it seems as if the separation must last for ever. Father in heaven! It is only a moment of silence in the intimacy of a conversation. Bless then this silence, and let me not forget that you are silent through love, and that you speak through love, so that in your silence and in your word you are still the same Father, and that you guide and instruct even by your silence.

[489:162:September 7 Soren Kierkegaard, 1813-1855]

Monday, September 18, 2006

Spying For God: Bible Comment on Zechariah 1:1-17 with poem by William Blake, In a Myrtle Shade

Daily Readings
Sirach 9:1-16, II Kings 2, Zechariah 1:1-17, Jeremiah 22

Daily Text: Zechariah 1:1-17

Spying For God
Zechariah 1 declares the beginning of the prophecy in 519 B.C. His ancestors have ignored the Lord’s warnings and been lost in the mists of time. His contemporaries hear and repent recognizing that “The LORD of hosts has dealt with us according to our ways and deeds, just as he planned to do.” Once again, this prophetic voice enunciates the conditional nature of the LORD’s favor. Our ways are critical.
The first of seven visions establishes the context for them all. This is first received by Zechariah in mid-February, 519 B.C. That is almost seventy years after the destruction of the temple in 587/6 B.C. and becomes the framework for the prophecy. Unlike Jeremiah whose reference to seventy years is the Exile, this prophecy relates to the temple and its rebuilding. In his vision, Zechariah sees a glen filled with myrtle trees, low and dense, having their leaves even in winter, providing cover for the horsemen. Persia had an excellent intelligence system marked by spies around its dominions. Here the LORD uses fleet horsemen, to fan out along the excellent Persian roads, presumably at night, to gather intelligence for Him. This image of spying for God perhaps symbolizes His omniscience—the best intelligence of all [527:128]! YHWH is not happy with the nations for the way they have treated his people even though he has used them for his own purposes. Compassionately he turns to his newly repented people and promises the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem (vs. 16), in fact, the image of the measuring line suggests the rebuilding of the entire city. Not only that, along with the rebuilding will come a new prosperity that will fill up those cities to overflowing, perhaps, the imagery suggests, spilling over the brim of the walls [528:158]. This is indeed blessing.

In a Myrtle Shade
William Blake

O, how sick and weary I
Underneath my myrtle lie,
Like to dung upon the ground
Underneath my myrtle bound.

Why should I be bound to thee,
O my lovely myrtle tree?
Love, free love, cannot be bound
To any tree that grows on ground.

Oft my myrtle sighed in vain
To behold my heavy chain.
Oft my father saw us sigh,
And laughed at our simplicity.

So I smote him and his gore
Stained the roots my myrtle bore.
But the time of youth is fled,
And grey hairs are on my head.

Collect for the Day
God help us to find our confession,
The truth within us which is hidden from our mind,
The beauty or the ugliness we see elsewhere
But never in ourselves;
The stowaway which has been smuggled
Into the dark side of the heart,
Which puts the heart off balance and causes it pain,
Which wearies and confuses us,
Which tips us in false directions and inclines us to destruction,
The load which is not carried squarely
Because it is carried in ignorance
God help us to find our confession.
Help us across the boundary of our understanding.
Lead us into the darkness that we may find what lies concealed.
That we may confess it towards the light,
That we carry our truth in the centre of our heart;
That we may carry our cross wisely
And bring harmony into our life and our world.

[489:227:December 16]

Sunday, September 17, 2006

Ambushed By God: Bible comment on II Chronicles 20 with poem by George Lansing Taylor, Jehoshaphat's Deliverance

Daily Readings
Sirach 8, II Kings 1, II Chronicles 20, Jeremiah 21

Daily Text: II Chronicles 20

Ambushed By God
Could there be a more fascinating story? This reminds one of David and Goliath, but Jehoshaphat is not even courageous, he is simply humbled, not knowing what to do but pray. This account of Jehoshaphat’s ‘war’ with the Dead Sea powers is “theology, not military history [522:182]. In fact, it reads more like “a liturgical procession than a military maneuver” and yet the invading armies, ‘ambushed by God’ are thoroughly routed [522:183]. Well, if the text is to be taken at face value, not a soldier lived. This conclusion does not have to be taken literally in order to be faithful to the text.

What a beautiful record! The prayer itself is stunning in its reverence and theological purity. It refers to Moses leading the children out of Egypt and calls on the great promises of the LORD to defend Judah. Ultimately, Jehoshaphat admits “We do not know what to do, but our eyes are on you” (vs. 12). In the middle of Jehoshaphat’s prayer, the LORD inspires Jahaziel ben Zechariah to prophecy the course to be followed. And the people, led by their king, march out to meet the invaders singing their liturgical theme song

Give thanks to the LORD
For his steadfast love endures

When they arrive on the battlefield, the battle is obviously all over with their enemies lying everywhere, dead on the field. The result was political rest, free of foreign threat, for an extended period of time. God is very active in the affairs of the kingdom. This is borne out a second time in relation to Jehoshaphat’s subsequent entanglement with King Ahaziah of Israel.

Jehoshaphat’s Deliverance
George Lansing Taylor

Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah in peace;
The land lay in quiet and teemed with increase;
For righteousness ruled from the cot to the throne,
And Judah rejoiced in Jehovah alone.

For, Baal’s base worship once hurled from God’s land,
Prosperity poured from His liberal hand;
The law was revered and the temple restored;
And Salem shone bright in the smile of her Lord.

Then came a swift message of terror and fear:
Lo, Moab, and Ammon, and Edom from Seir,
Have swarmed from the desert, a numberless host,
To pillage our cities and plunder our coast!

A black cloud of evil, a whirlwind of fate,
One day’s rapid march from Jerusalem’s gate;
Like locusts they light upon Judah’s fair realm!
Like demons descend to devour and o’erwhelm!

Then trembling Jehoshaphat feared and proclaimed
A fast for all Judah; and sacrifice flamed,
And Judah’s strong warriors, with children, and wives,
In the house of Jehovah implored for their lives.

“Lord God of our fathers, in Heaven adored,
Thou rulest on earth, our Omnipotent Lord;
Fierce kingdoms of heathen obey Thy command!
The might of Thy majesty none can withstand!

“Art Thou not our God, who has sworn to defend
Forever the children of Abrah’m Thy friend?
Who gave us this land, and forbade us to slay
These children of Lot, who would make us their prey?

“Behold in Thy presence our little ones stand,
Like lambs in the fold when the wolf is at hand!
O wilt Thou not judge them? Thy terror we know;
Thy might to o’erwhelm our implacable foe!”

Then swift on the singer Jahaziel came
The spirit of God, like a baptism of flame,
From the midst of the people, who prostrate adored,
He leapt as on fire with the word of the Lord.

“Ho! Hearken all Judah! Jerusalem sad,
And thou, King Jehoshaphat, hear and be glad.
For thus saith Jehovah, your champion divine:
Ye bring me your battle—I take it as mine!

“To-morrow go down; yet ye go not to fight,
But to stand and behold my salvation and might;
To shout, while Jehovah shall charge on the foe,
With nameless and awful and utter o’erthrow.”

Then prostrate, adoring, fell monarch and throng;
Then thundered, exultant, the Kohathite song;
And cymbal and psaltery, timbrel and lyre,
Awoke at the rapture and wafted it higher.

Then bold on the morrow, unawed, undismayed,
Marched forth to God’s battle that weird cavalcade;
Unarmed and unarmoured, no shield and no sword,
But trusting the terrible word of the Lord.

Tekoa’s wild echoes their anthems rebound,
And Jeruel’s wilderness wakes at the sound;
Not war songs of slaughter, not wrath at the foe,
But the Beauty of Holiness swells as they go.

The mercies of God that forever endure,
His judgment tremendous, His righteousness sure,
His kindness unchanging, His goodness untold,
With song and with trumpet the grand paean rolled.

Then lo! as unconsciously onward they trod,
Leapt forth on their foe the dread ambush of God!
The Power that breathes order, and star-clusters burn,
Bade chaos and madness one moment return!

For Moab and Ammon and Maon and Seir,
In anger and jealousy, frenzy and fear,
Have rent the fierce compact which now they abhor,
And charged on each other, like whirlwinds at war.

And Moab and Ammon on Edom now wheel;
And Maon is swept with their tempest of steel’
Then, frantic, they rush on each other in ire,
And all in a whirlpool of slaughter expire!

What wizard his wand of enchantment has waved?
What demon his dire malediction has raved?
What magic infernal, more awful than name,
Has hurled on whole armies its mindscorching flame?

‘Tis the arm of Jehovah, for Zion made bare!
‘Tis His banner of wrath blazing out on the air!
‘Tis the scath of His vengeance, the blast of His breath,
Sweeping hot as the fire-wind o’er harvests of death!

‘Tis a heaven-sent fury God’s foes to confound!
‘Tis His meteor sword dealing madness around!
Till the last fierce invader lies pale and o’erthrown
Where red heaps of havoc and slaughter are strewn!

Then, from her high watchtower, afar o’er the plain
Gazed Judah in awe over myriads of slain,
And heaped a new harvest from bloodwatered soil,
Of jewels and riches and raiment and spoil.

Then blessings untold from Berachah ascend;
Then trumpet and cornet and cithara blend
With tabret and dulcimer, sackbut and shalm,
In Zion’s Hosanna, her rapturous psalm.

And nations are awed at Jehovah’s dread might,
Whose arm overwhelming fought Israel’s fight;
And ages his honor and rest shall record,
Who dared leave his battle alone to the Lord.

Collect for the Day
Lord, bless this kingdom, we beseech thee, that religion and virtue may season all sorts of men, that there may be peace within the gates, and plenty within the palaces of it. In peace, we beseech thee, so preserve it, that it corrupt not; in war, so defend it, that it suffer not; in plenty, so order it, that it riot not; in want, so pacify and moderate it, that it may patiently and peaceably see thee, the only full supply both of men and states; that so it may continue a place and a people to do thee service to the end of time; through Jesus Christ our only Saviour and Redeemer. Amen.

[286:203 Archbishop William Laud1573-1645]